15 Different Types of Loans You Should Know


A loan is an amount of money borrowed for a fixed period, which must be paid back within a predetermined timeframe, with interest added to the repayment amount. In India, there are various types of loans available to suit different needs, whether planned or unplanned. These loans serve the purpose of helping individuals finance various expenses such as purchasing a house or car, getting married, starting a business, or funding education, among others. Loans in India can be broadly categorized into secured and unsecured loans. Secured loans require collateral, while unsecured loans do not. Each category includes different types of loans tailored to specific purposes. Loans provide a lifeline for individuals to fulfil their financial aspirations, offering accessible borrowing


 options to meet diverse requirements.

Explore the variety of loans available in India

  • Secured Loans
  • Unsecured Loans

1. Secured Loans

A secured loan is a borrowing option in India that requires collateral, such as property, fixed deposits, or gold, to secure the loan amo

unt. These loans often offer lower interest rates compared to unsecured loans, with the loan amount determined by the value of the collateral provided. Secured loans are suitable for individuals with valuable assets but lower credit scores or unstable incomes. However, borrowers should be cautious, as defaulting on the loan can lead to the lender seizing the collateral. Responsible financial management can make secured loans an effective way to meet significant financial needs with relatively lower interest rates.

Types of Secured Loans

1. Home Loans

Home loans finance the purchase of real estate, covering up to 90% of the property value with the remainder paid as a down payment. These loans are repaid with interest through monthly payments over long tenures, with rates starting at 8.30%. Types include land purchase loans, home construction loans, and home improvement loans. Government housing schemes offer loans with lower down payments, benefiting applicants with lower credit scores.

2. Gold Loans

Gold loans are secured loans obtained by pledging gold ornaments, coins, or bullion as collateral. They are ideal for short-term financial needs, have shorter repayment tenures than home loans, and typically lower interest rates than personal loans.

3. Vehicle Loans

Vehicle loans finance the purchase of new or used cars, bikes, or electric vehicles, with the vehicle serving as collateral. Loan amounts depend on the borrower’s credit score, income, and the vehicle’s on-road price. Borrowers usually need to make a down payment, and the lender retains ownership of the vehicle until the loan is fully repaid.

4. Loans Against Property

Loans against property (LAP) are secured loans using a home or investment property as collateral. The loan amount is based on the property’s value and can be used for any financial need. LAPs have higher interest rates than other secured loans but lower than unsecured loans and may offer tax benefits.

5. Loans Against Fixed Deposits

Loans against fixed deposits (FD) use FDs as collateral, allowing you to borrow up to 90-95% of the deposit amount. Interest rates are typically up to 2% higher than the FD rate. These loans are easy to obtain as FDs are considered safe investments.

6. Loans Against Insurance Policies

Loans against insurance policies use certain life insurance policies, like endowment plans and traditional policies, as collateral. You can borrow up to 90% of the policy’s surrender value, with interest rates based on the bank’s 1-year MCLR rate. This option provides funds during a cash crunch.

7. Loans Against Mutual Funds and Shares

Loans against mutual funds and shares allow you to borrow money using your investments as collateral. This option provides access to funds, flexible repayment choices, and no prepayment charges, enabling you to leverage your investments to achieve financial goals

2. Unsecured Loans

Unsecured loans in India are a popular form of borrowing that do not require collateral, making them accessible for various financial needs. These loans are granted based on the borrower’s ability to repay, without the need for assets like property or gold as security. While they offer convenience and quick access to funds, unsecured loans often come with higher interest rates compared to secured loans, reflecting the increased risk for the lender. However, with competitive interest rates and flexible repayment options offered by lenders, borrowers can find deals that suit their financial capabilities.

Types of Unsecured Loans in India

08. Personal Loans

Personal loans are unsecured loans that can be used for various financial needs, such as emergencies, home renovations, vacations, or weddings. They are typically short-term borrowings used when other types of loans are not applicable. These loans are available to pre-approved customers and those with stable income and high credit scores, often at lower interest rates. However, personal loans generally have high-interest rates, determined by the lender based on the borrowed amount, repayment period, and other factors. A good credit score can improve your chances of getting a personal loan.

09. Education Loans

An education loan is an unsecured loan used to finance the cost of higher education, including tuition fees, accommodation, and living expenses. It can be used for undergraduate, graduate, or professional degree programs, both in India and abroad. While typically unsecured, lenders may require collateral or a guarantor for high loan amounts.

10. Wedding Loans

Wedding loans are specialized personal loans designed to cover the expenses related to weddings. These unsecured loans can be used for various wedding-related costs such as venue bookings, catering, decorations, clothing, and even honeymoon expenses. Wedding loans come with varying loan amounts and repayment terms, allowing borrowers to plan their dream wedding without financial constraints. Borrowers should carefully plan their wedding expenses and consider their ability to comfortably repay the loan after the celebrations.

11. Medical Loans

A medical loan is a type of financial product designed to help individuals cover medical expenses, whether for emergencies or planned treatments. These loans offer easy documentation and quick disbursement, providing access to funds needed for medical treatment. They can be used for hospitalization costs, surgeries, diagnostic tests, medications, or any other medical expenses. Medical loans may be secured or unsecured, depending on the lender’s policies and the borrower’s creditworthiness. Borrowers should carefully consider their medical needs and choose a loan amount that can be repaid comfortably without financial strain.

12. Travel Loans

A travel loan, also known as a holiday loan, is a type of personal loan designed for individuals who want to travel but may be short on funds. These loans allow borrowers to finance their travel expenses and are typically unsecured with a fixed repayment period. The approval process is straightforward, and the loan amount is disbursed quickly, making it a convenient option for those looking to fulfill their travel dreams without straining their immediate finances. Borrowers should carefully budget their travel expenses and choose a loan amount that they can comfortably repay to avoid financial burden after the trip.

13. Credit Card Loans

Credit card loans are tied to a user’s credit card account and may or may not be linked to the card’s credit limit. These loans offer fast access to funds without requiring paperwork and can be used for various financial needs. However, they often come with significantly higher interest rates compared to personal loans. Repayment is typically done through EMIs included in the card’s monthly bill. While credit cards provide convenience and rewards, it’s advisable to use them sparingly and for small amounts due to their high-interest rates.

14. Flexi Loans

A flexi loan is an unsecured loan that provides access to funds up to an approved limit, allowing borrowers to withdraw cash as needed without restrictions or extra costs. Interest is charged only on the amount used, offering flexibility in borrowing and repayment.

15. Short-term Business Loans

Short-term business loans are unsecured loans designed to help businesses facing temporary cash shortages. With a maximum term of one year, these loans offer flexible and negotiable interest rates. They are typically used for working capital needs like inventory or equipment purchases and do not require collateral.

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Loans in India offer a diverse range of financial solutions to meet various needs, from buying a home to financing a vacation. It’s crucial for individuals to assess each loan’s terms, compare interest rates and repayment terms, and choose the most suitable option that aligns with their financial goals and capabilities. Maintaining a healthy credit score and practicing responsible financial management are also essential to ensure timely repayment and avoid negative impacts on credit history. With careful consideration and planning, loans can be a valuable tool to achieve financial objectives while minimizing risks and maximizing benefits.


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